Finishing processes may be chemical or mechanical. Depending on its use, the characteristics obtained may modify the texture – embossing adds relief to smooth fabrics – or to add useful technical properties – such as rendering a fabric fire-resistant. The expertise of the finisher gives the fabric the desired appearance and technical performance without altering the original qualities of the textile material.
Flannel used to be a carded woollen fabric with a felted-look – or a combed and carded wool for English flannel – used for linings and undergarments. This fluffy and soft fabric is today made of combed cotton.
Floats are part of the warp or weft weave where a yarn is left free from the surface of the cloth, less woven, laying over the other yarns. Floats can be used to create a pattern or show-off a thread of a particular texture or colour.
Fil monofilament, multifilament
Yarns can be single or mono-filament, twisted or untwisted. Multi-filament yarns are composites and can be made of several single or multiple yarns. The most important criteria is that it be strong enough to be woven or knitted to create the final fabric.
Finette / Brushed cotton
Finette or brushed cotton is a cotton fabric mainly used today for bedlinen and sheets. Its crossed weave is ribbed on both sides and combines high grammage with comfortable flexibility. This fabric is napped on one side to make it soft and fluffy.
Flat frame printing
Flat frame or Lyon technique printing is similar to screen-printing. Frames are engraved, originally using silk-screens, which are used as stencils using a procedure of reaction to light. The screens are placed between the ink and the cloth. The pattern is produces as the colour passes through the frame using a squeegee. A different frame is needed for each colour for this printing technique. The automation of a heated table for “wet-on-dry” printing gives more precise and complex patterns and ensures the superior quality required for luxury items.
Fleece is a mix of polyester fibres, cotton or other natural fibres such a wool or hemp. It is non-woven. The fibres are entangled and are used for seat pads, stuffing quilts, bedspreads or curtains. Its looseness creates thermal properties to retain heat.