Damask, the name was borrowed from the Syrian city by Marco Polo, is a fabric whose patterns come from its weave. Of often non-contrasting colours, the patterns stand out from the background because of the matte-glossy contrast, the fabric is double-sided, the patterns are simply reversed. Using satin and twill weaves, damask is often made from silk. The name is also used for the technique applied to linen or cotton by the Flemish from the 16th century.
Dauphine / Drugget
Drugget is a very old name probably originating from dyeing products which used to be bought from “druggists”. It has a “warp-pile” effect obtained by adding an extra thread in the same colour as the linen or cotton warp combined with a wool weft. Dauphine is a type of drugget which can be made from different materials, with small floral patterns with alternating matte and shiny bands.
Denim (toile de Nîmes)
The ancestor of denim is “serge de Nîmes” (Nîmes twill), a wool and silk fabric from Cévennes. It then became a strong and utilitarian fabric for work-clothes, first in France and then in the USA. It is a cotton twill fabric with recognizable diagonal ribbing which can be left or right facing. The warp is dyed indigo blue, formerly called “Bleu de Gênes” (Gênes blue) then woven with a white or ecru weft. Gradual fading and softening over time are characteristic of denim.
Diamantine is a mercerized cotton fabric, with tightly woven, narrow yarn which give its shine and silky feel.
Duchesse Satin was originally made from very glossy silk, shimmering through its length with a heavy and fluid drape. It is these qualities which made is a recurring subject in paintings throughout the centuries, the artists appreciating the challenge of representing this symbol of prosperity. Made using dyed yarns of silk, mixed-silk or synthetic fibres, its satin weave is characterized by its heavy weight of between 60 and 140g/m² and the large number of warp threads.
The launch of inkjet textile printers in the 1970s was the starting point for the use of digital technology for textile printing. Digital printing uses jets to apply the colours in the pattern using four colours. Digital transfer is used to reproduce photos or complex patterns on the base fabric using a heated press. Digital technology reduces the printing costs, aids the development of many designs and reduces the production times and minimum quantities.
Direct printing describes the technique used for textile printing where colourants are applied to certain parts of the fabric. The fabric can be natural, white or already dyed in a pale colour.
Discharge printing / Extract printing
Discharge printing (also known as extract printing) can be simple, or in the case of colour-discharge printing, two-in-one. The technique removes previously dyed colourant or if applied to certain parts of the fabric, then, if needed, redyes them. This method is precise and crisp for some types of design.